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Special Topics in Adjustments GEOM 6140

Geomatics Course

Course details

The course starts with a review of observation errors and their modelling, confidence level and error probability of statistical hypotheses (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors), error propagation law and network design by pre-analysis, including simple pre-analysis of survey observations. Then it covers the formulation and derivation of different cases of least squares adjustments, such as parametric, conditional and combined (or general) mathematical models; the adjustment of control networks (1D, 2D, 3D) and other geomatics measurements, including data series; the adjustment with weighted parameters; the measures of quality, elimination of blunders by global and local tests, elimination of nuisance parameters, and sequential adjustments; problem of reliability and sensitivity; and the problem of datum, including datum transformations. The course ends with an introduction to filtering and prediction.


  • 50% in MATH 2511 and 50% in MATH 3512 and 50% in GEOM 4090
  • Course registration is restricted to students with completion of 2-year Geomatics diploma.





Course offerings

Fall 2023

Below is one offering of GEOM 6140 for the Fall 2023 term.

CRN 48154


Wed Sep 06 - Wed Dec 13 (15 weeks)

  • 15 weeks
  • CRN 48154
  • $1118.94
Class meeting times
Dates Days Times Locations
Sep 06 - Dec 13 N/A N/A Online

John Ogundare

Course outline

Course outline TBD — see Learning Outcomes in the interim.





Important information
  1. Internet delivery format.
  2. Departmental approval needed
  3. Important course information will be sent to you prior to your course start date. Check your myBCIT email account to access this information.
  4. Students may receive approval to register for this course with completion of 2-year Geomatics diploma, and meeting all other prerequisites. To receive approval, please email your official academic transcript(s) and BCIT Student ID to If you are new to BCIT, create an ID at **IMPORTANT: The mid-term and the final exams must be written at an approved Exam Centre only. Details will be emailed to you after registering for the course.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:

  • Review observation errors and their modelling, including error (random and systematic) propagations in survey measurements.
  • Evaluate survey measurements and the adjusted quantities using the concepts of confidence level and error probability of statistical hypotheses (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors).
  • Design survey network by pre-analysis.
  • Apply matrix theory approach to data analysis and least squares estimation.
  • Formulate least squares adjustment problems (parametric, conditional, combined), including the functional and stochastic models.
  • Solve 1D-, 2D- and 3D- network problems relating to levelling, traverse, triangulation, trilateration, and GNSS surveys, using different least squares adjustment methods and constraints.
  • Assess quality of adjustment solutions using the concepts of global and local statistical tests, covariance matrices, and error ellipses.
  • Explain reliability and sensitivity of survey networks.
  • Formulate nuisance parameters elimination model and sequential adjustments model.
  • Analyze datum problems in geomatics, including free network adjustments and datum transformations.
  • Relate simple filtering and prediction methods with the standard least squares adjustment methods.

Effective as of Winter 2018

Related Programs

Special Topics in Adjustments (GEOM 6140) is offered as a part of the following programs:

School of Construction and the Environment

  1. Geomatics
    Bachelor of Science Full-time


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