British Columbia Institute of


GEOM 8353 - Special Topics in Adjustments

Geomatics Part-time Studies Course

School of Construction and the Environment

Course Details

The course starts with a review of observation errors and modelling, confidence level and error probability of statistical decisions (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors), and random error propagation and pre-analysis of survey observations. Then it covers the formulation and derivation of different cases of least squares adjustments, such as parametric, conditional and combined mathematical models; the adjustment of control networks, including the measures of quality, elimination of orientation parameters, sequential adjustments, distorted mathematical models, and elimination of blunders by global and local tests; problem of reliability and sensitivity; problem of datum, including datum transformations; and the adjustment with weighted parameters. The course ends with an introduction to filtering and prediction.


Successful completion of a 2 year Geomatics Diploma Program including MATH 2511, MATH 3511 and MATH 4511 or equivalent approved from Program Head.





Fall 2018

Below is one offering of this course for the Fall 2018 term.

CRN 37317

Tue Sep 11 - Tue Dec 18 15 Weeks

Class Meeting Times

Dates Days Times Locations
Sep 11 - Dec 18 Online


John Ogundare

Course Outline

TBD – see Learning Outcomes in the interim




  1. Internet delivery format.
  2. Departmental approval needed
  3. Students may receive approval to register for this course with completion of 2 year Geomatics diploma, and meeting all other prerequisites. To receive approval, please email your official academic transcript(s) and BCIT Student ID to **IMPORTANT: The mid-term and the final exams must be written at an approved Exam Centre only. Details will be emailed to you after registering for the course.
  4. Important course information will be sent to you prior to your course start date. Check your myBCIT email account to access this information.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Analyze observation errors and modelling, explain confidence level and error probability of statistical decisions (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors), and perform random error propagation and pre-analysis of survey observations.
  • Formulate least squares adjustment problems (parametric, conditional, combined), including the functional and stochastic models.
  • Derive least squares adjustment equations of different cases (parametric, conditional, combined) and conduct least squares adjustment of geomatics problem such as levelling, traverse, triangulation and trilateration networks based on the different cases.
  • Assess the quality of the adjustment solutions (global and local statistical tests; covariance matrix, error ellipse).
  • Evaluate reliability and sensitivity of survey networks.
  • Carry out orientation parameters elimination, and perform weighted parameters and sequential adjustments.
  • Evaluate numerically the adjustment of free control networks and perform datum transformations.
  • Solve simple filtering and prediction problems, and explain the uses of filtering and prediction, and their relationship to the standard least squares adjustment methods.

Effective as of Winter 2012

Books & Supplies

The BCIT bookstore carries textbooks, general reference books, software, and stationery. Please visit for more information.

Fall 2018

Books for Fall 2018 offerings of this course are available in the following BCIT online bookstores. Please choose the bookstore appropriate for the offering you are considering.

BCIT Distance & Online Learning Bookstore

If you are taking this course through either Distance Education or Online Learning, please purchase books for this course at the BCIT Distance & Online Learning Bookstore.

Image not available
Data Analysis And Least Squares Estimation (June 2016)
Author Geom : Ogundare
Binding Shrink Wrapped
Price $24.50


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