This course provides an understanding of hydrographic surveying in sufficient depth to enable the student to plan, carry out, and evaluate proposals for such a survey. Topics include Canadian legislation, oceanography and marine geosciences, marine positioning, depth determination using echo-sounders and multi-beam systems, side-scan sonar, some non-acoustic depth determination techniques, tides, hydrographic charts, data management, hydrographic survey specifications and project management.
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Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
Describe the three main pieces of Canadian legislation that govern a large portion of hydrographic surveys conducted in Canadian waters.
Understand how Canada's offshore international boundaries are determined.
Explain why a basic knowledge of oceanography and marine geosciences is necessary for the planning and conduct of hydrographic surveys.
Describe some key instrumentation used to collect oceanographic and marine geosciences physical samples and digital data.
Define the various coordinate systems involved for the horizontal positioning for a hydrographic survey.
Explain the functions of marine positioning instrumentation used to determine system orientation and vessel heave.
Describe the various sources of errors of horizontal positioning when conducting a hydrographic survey.
Describe the principles of long, short and ultra-short baseline acoustic positioning system modes.
Explain the role of the various vertical datums used in hydrographic operations and methods of establishing them.
Explain how to select, establish, interpolate and transfer datums in tidal and non-tidal waters.
Understand how the physical properties of water affect the speed of sound in water and how to calculate sound speed from measurements of temperature, pressure (depth), and salinity.
Understand how acoustic system parameters are defined by frequency, beamwidth, pulse-length, pulse repetition rate, detection threshold, bandwidth, and resolution.
For single-beam echo-sounders:
Explain the differences between narrow and wide beam transducers.
Describe the various calibration methods.
Explain the reductions needed to be made to measured depths due to water level variations, draft and transducer separation.
Assess the uncertainty in soundings due to errors in the positioning system, echo-sounder, water level measurement, vessel motion and seabed topography and explain how to select appropriate methods for controlling or reducing sounding uncertainty for specific applications.
Describe the basic operation of, and the results that can be obtained from, side-scan sonar.
For multi-beam echo-sounders:
Explain the basic principles of multi-beam sonar transmit and receive beam forming and steering.
Effective as of Winter 2012
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