British Columbia Institute of

Important Notice: COVID-19 Institute response


GEOM 6140 - Special Topics in Adjustments

Geomatics Part-time Studies Course

School of Construction and the Environment

BCIT is planning for a substantial return to on-campus activity for the fall 2021 term as informed by BC Public Health Officer guidelines. Refer to each course listing for details.

Course Details

The course starts with a review of observation errors and their modelling, confidence level and error probability of statistical hypotheses (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors), error propagation law and network design by pre-analysis, including simple pre-analysis of survey observations. Then it covers the formulation and derivation of different cases of least squares adjustments, such as parametric, conditional and combined (or general) mathematical models; the adjustment of control networks (1D, 2D, 3D) and other geomatics measurements, including data series; the adjustment with weighted parameters; the measures of quality, elimination of blunders by global and local tests, elimination of nuisance parameters, and sequential adjustments; problem of reliability and sensitivity; and the problem of datum, including datum transformations. The course ends with an introduction to filtering and prediction.


MATH 2511, MATH 3512 and GEOM 4090 or approved equivalencies





Fall 2021

Below is one offering of this course for the Fall 2021 term.

CRN 48154

Tue Sep 07 - Tue Dec 14 15 Weeks

Class Meeting Times

Dates Days Times Locations
Sep 07 - Dec 14 Online


John Ogundare

Course Outline




  1. Internet delivery format.
  2. Departmental approval needed
  3. Students may receive approval to register for this course with completion of 2-year Geomatics diploma, and meeting all other prerequisites. To receive approval, please email your official academic transcript(s) and BCIT Student ID to If you are new to BCIT, create an ID at **IMPORTANT: The mid-term and the final exams must be written at an approved Exam Centre only. Details will be emailed to you after registering for the course.
  4. Important course information will be sent to you prior to your course start date. Check your myBCIT email account to access this information.

This course offering is in progress. Please check back next term or subscribe to receive email updates.

In Progress

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:

  • Review observation errors and their modelling, including error (random and systematic) propagations in survey measurements.
  • Evaluate survey measurements and the adjusted quantities using the concepts of confidence level and error probability of statistical hypotheses (significance level, power of test, type I and type II errors).
  • Design survey network by pre-analysis.
  • Apply matrix theory approach to data analysis and least squares estimation.
  • Formulate least squares adjustment problems (parametric, conditional, combined), including the functional and stochastic models.
  • Solve 1D-, 2D- and 3D- network problems relating to levelling, traverse, triangulation, trilateration, and GNSS surveys, using different least squares adjustment methods and constraints.
  • Assess quality of adjustment solutions using the concepts of global and local statistical tests, covariance matrices, and error ellipses.
  • Explain reliability and sensitivity of survey networks.
  • Formulate nuisance parameters elimination model and sequential adjustments model.
  • Analyze datum problems in geomatics, including free network adjustments and datum transformations.
  • Relate simple filtering and prediction methods with the standard least squares adjustment methods.

Effective as of Winter 2018

Related Programs

GEOM 6140 is offered as a part of the following programs:

School of Construction and the Environment

  1. Geomatics
    Full-time   Bachelor of Science


Interested in being notified about future offerings of GEOM 6140 - Special Topics in Adjustments? If so, fill out the information below and we'll notify you by email when courses for each new term are displayed here.

Privacy Notice: The information you provide will be used to respond your request related to BCIT course information and is collected under Section 26(c) of the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA). For more information about BCIT’s privacy practices contact: Associate Director, Privacy, Information Access & Policy Management, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 3700 Willingdon Ave. Burnaby, BC V5A 3H2, email:

Programs and courses are subject to change without notice.

Find Courses

English Language Proficiency

BCIT's Part-time Studies English Language Proficiency Standard is English 12 (or equivalency). Students who do not meet this requirement should upgrade their English skills prior to any future registration.

Payment Changes At BCIT

We've changed the way we accept payments.

Find out more

Course Navigation, Related Links & Tools

Registration News

Registration is currently open for the Fall 2021 term.

The sneak preview for the Winter 2022 term starts Fri, Oct 22 at 8:30 am (PDT).

Students may register for Winter 2022 term courses online or by phone starting Wed, Oct 27 at 9:00 am (PDT).

Classroom Locations

Classroom locations are subject to last minute changes. Please check the Part-time Studies Classroom Locations listing at on the first day of any course you are registered for.

Part-time Studies Financial Aid

Will you be studying at BCIT part-time? Do you need assistance funding your studies? Find out if you qualify for Part-time Studies financial aid.