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Course Outlines

BHSC 2219 Anatomy and Physiology for Cardiology

School School of Health Sciences
Program Cardiology Technology
Course Credits 3
Minimum Passing Grade 60%
Start Date January 04, 2021
End Date March 26, 2021
Total Hours 36
Total Weeks 12
Hours/Weeks 3
Delivery Type Other
Pre-requisites 60% in BHSC 1119
CRN 48918

Acknowledgement of Territories

The British Columbia Institute of Technology acknowledges that our campuses are located on the unceded traditional territories of the Coast Salish Nations of Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), səl̓ilwətaɁɬ (Tsleil-Waututh), and xwməθkwəy̓əm (Musqueam).

Instructor Details

Name Jen Kong
E-mail Instructor to provide
Location SW 3 Rm 3083
Office Hours Instructor to provide

Course Description

BHSC 2219 is a Human Anatomy and Physiology course designed specifically for allied health professionals in the field of Cardiology. As such, its major focus is structure and function of the heart. Anatomy of the heart and the relation of the heart to thoracic structures are covered. The structure of the heart muscle cell or myocyte is related to its electrical and mechanical properties. A discussion of the electrical events of the cardiac cycle serves to provide the electrophysiological basis of the ECG. Mechanical events of the cycle are related to electrical events and to the pressure and volume changes in the heart chambers. Structure and function of the blood vessels as components of the circulatory system are covered. A unit on circulatory physiology serves to integrate functions of the heart, blood, and vessels. Discussions of the respiratory and urinary systems as they influence, and are influenced by, the circulation are included.

Course Learning Outcomes/Competencies

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

  • Relate the structure of the cardiovascular system to its functional capacity.
  • Apply anatomical and physiological systems to the field of cardiac sciences.
  • Utilize anatomy and physiological principles to adapt to new developments in the field of cardiac sciences.

Learning Resources

Recommended:

Cardiology

Lilly, L.S. (2016). Pathophysiology of heart disease: A Collaborative Project of Medical students and Faculty (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Anatomy & Physiology:

Tortora G.J. & Derrickson B.H. (2016) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology (15th Ed), Wiley.

Anatomy:

Moore, K.L., Agur A.M.R, & A.F. Dalley (2019) . Essential Clinical Anatomy (6th ed.) Philadelphia, PA: Lippincourt Williams & Wilkin

Embryology:

Sadler T.W. (2015) Langman's Medical Embryology (13th Ed) Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health

Suggested:

Advanced Anatomy

Drake R.L., Vogl. A.W, Mitchell A.W.. (2015), Gray’s Anatomy (3rd ed) Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Embryology

Moore K.L. & Persaud T.V.N. (2008), Before we are Born - Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects (7th ed) Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier

Course Goals

This course provides students with foundational knowledge of cardiac anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology.

Evaluation Criteria

Criteria

Allotted Time

% of total grade

Comments

Midterm 1 (Modules 1−5)2 hr30Fri Feb 5 2021

Midterm 2 (Modules 6−10)

2 hrs

30

Fri Mar 5 2021

Final Examinaton (All Modules)

2.5h

40

Tues Mar 30 2021

Course Specific Requirements

Due to current COVID 19 distancing restrictions, the exams will be written at home on a computer. It is not recommended to write these exams on a cell phone.

Other information

While COVID 19 distancing restrictions are in place, all exams will be written at home on a computer. Instructions on how to access the exam will be provided closer to the date.

Statement for prior learning assessment

Students who have learning accomodations must contact the instructor as soon as possible to discuss ways to support student success.

Course topics

Week

Outcome/Material Covered

1

Jan 4-10

Chapter 1: The Heart in Situ

A. The thoracic cavity

B. Surface landmarks

C. Borders of the heart

D. Surfaces of the heart

E. External features of the heart

F. The pericardium

G. Walls of the heart

H. Myocardial fiber arrangement

Chapter 2: Heart Chambers and Valves

A. The right heart

1. The right atrium

2. The right ventricle

3. The tricuspid valve

4. The pulmonary valve

B. The left heart

1. The left atrium

2. The left ventricle

3. The mitral valve

4. The aortic valve

C. The fibrous skeleton

D. Specialized electrical components of the heart

2

Jan 11-17

Chapter 3: Myocyte Structure

A. The cell membrane or sarcolemma

1. Membrane lipids

2. Membrane proteins

3. Membrane channels

4. Membrane carriers

5. Membrane receptors

6. Membrane junctions

7. Transverse tubules

B. Cytoplasm or sarcoplasm

1. Mitochondria

2. Myofilaments

3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum

3

Jan 18-24

Chapter 4: Electrical Activity of the Cell

A. The resting potential

1. Charge separation

2. Current and resistance

3. Ionic basis of the resting potential

B. The action potential

1. Phases of the action potential

2. Ionic basis of the fast response

3. Ionic basis of the slow response

4. Restoration of ionic concentrations after the action potential

5. All or nothing nature of the action potential

6. Periods of abnormal excitability

C. After potentials

D. Automaticity

E. Action potential propagation

4

Jan 25- 31

Chapter 5: Contraction of the Myocyte

A. Mechanism and control of contraction

1. The Sliding Filament theory

2. Excitation-contraction coupling

B. Relaxation

C. ATP sources for cellular work

D. Force and speed of cellular contraction

1. Force and length

2. Force and velocity

5

Feb 1-7

Chapter 6: Electrophysiological Basis of the ECG

A. Creation of an electrical dipole

B. The activation front

C. The recovery front

D. ECG leads

E. A typical ECG

1. The P wave

2. The PR segment

3. The QRS complex

4. Atrial repolarization

5. The ST interval

6. The T wave

7. The U wave

MIDTERM 1 (Modules 1-5): Fri Feb 5 2021

6

Feb 8-14

Chapter 7: The Heart as a Pump

A. Systolic and diastolic phases of the heart chambers

B. Hydrostatic pressures

C. Pressure changes through the cardiac cycle

D. Ventricular volume changes through the cardiac cycle

E. Heart sounds

F. Factors affecting the cardiac output

F. Fluid balance across the capillary wall

G. The venous system

H. Endothelial cell physiology

7

Feb 15-21

Chapter 8: Blood Vessels

A. Anatomy of the systemic circulation

B. General histology of blood vessels

C. The arterial system

D. Resistance control

E. The microcirculation

Chapter 9: The Blood

A. Erythrocytes and gas transport

B. Leukocytes and body defense

C. Platelets and hemostasis

D. The blood plasma-plasma lipoproteins

8

Feb 22-28

Chapter 10: Circulatory Physiology

A. The blood pressure gradient

B. Factors affecting systemic arterial pressure

1. Vessel distensibility

2. Cardiac output

· Heart rate

· Contractility

· Frank-Starling effect

3. Venous return

4. Resistance to blood flow

· Blood viscosity

· Vascular resistance

C. Nervous system control of arterial pressure

1. CNS control centers

2. Peripheral receptors

D. Velocity of blood flow

9

Mar 1-7

Chapter 11: Coronary Circulation

A. Anatomy of the coronary circulation

B. Capillary and collateral circulation

C. Normal values and general characteristics

D. Control of coronary circulation

1. Mechanical factors and coronary flow

2. Cardiac metabolism and coronary flow

3. Neural control of coronary flow

MIDTERM 2 (Modules 6-10): Fri Mar 5 2021

10

Mar 8-14

Chapter 12: Embryology of the Heart and Great Vessels

A. Early heart development — The primitive circulation

B. Completion of heart development

1. Partitioning of the atrioventricular canal

2. Partitioning of the primitive atrium

3. Fate of the sinus venosus

4. Fate of the primitive pulmonary vein

5. Partitioning of the primitive ventricle

6. Partitioning of the bulbus cordis and truncus arteriosus

C. Development of the conducting system of the heart

D. Congenital anomalies of the heart and great vessels

1. Atrial septal defects

2. Ventricular septal defects

3. Abnormal division of the truncus arteriosus

4. Transposition of the great arteries

5. Tetrology of Fallot

E. The aortic arches

1. Derivatives of the aortic arches

2. Anomalies of the aortic arches

F. The fetal circulation

11

Mar 15-21

Chapter 13: The Respiratory System

A. Anatomy of the respiratory passageways

B. Histology of the respiratory passageways

C. Blood vessels of the lung

D. The lungs within the pleural cavities

E. Ventilation

1. Inspiration

2. Expiration

3. Effects of ventilation on circulation

F. Pulmonary blood flow

G. Water balance across pulmonary capillary walls

12

Mar 22-28

Chapter 14: The Urinary System

A. Structure of the urinary system

B. The kidneys

1. The nephron

2. The juxtaglomerular apparatus

C. The basic renal processes

1. Glomerular filtration-glomerular filtration rate

2. Tubular reabsorption

3. Tubular secretion

D. Control of urine volume

1. The countercurrent concentrating mechanisms

2. Antidiuretic hormone

3. Aldosterone

E. Atrial natriuretic factor

F. Diuretics and ACE inhibitors

FINAL EXAM (all modules): Tues Mar 30 2021

BCIT Policy

Any student who needs special assistance in the event of a medical emergency or building evacuation (either because of a disability or for any other reason) should promptly inform their course instructor(s) and Accessibility Services of their personal circumstances.

Human Rights, Harassment and Discrimination:
The BCIT community is made up of individuals from every ability, background, experience and identity, each contributing uniquely to the richness and diversity of the BCIT community as a whole. In recognition of this, and the intrinsic value of our diversity, BCIT seeks to foster a climate of collaboration, understanding and mutual respect between all members of the community and ensure an inclusive accessible working and learning environment where everyone can succeed.

Respect, Diversity, and Inclusion is a supportive resource for both students and employees of BCIT, to foster a respectful learning and working environment. Any student who feels that they are experiencing discrimination or harassment (personal or human rights-related) can confidentially access this resource for advice and support. Please see Policy 7507 – Harassment and Discrimination and accompanying procedure.

Students should make themselves aware of additional Education, Administration, Safety and other BCIT policies listed at https://www.bcit.ca/about/administration/policies.shtml

Guidelines for School of Health Sciences

No school specific policies, please refer to main BCIT Policy.

Approved

I verify that the content of this course outline is current.
Jen Kong, Instructor
December 20, 2020

I verify that this course outline has been reviewed.
David Kojwang, Program Head
December 21, 2020

I verify that this course outline has been reviewed and complies with BCIT policy.
Patricia Sackville, Associate Dean
December 21, 2020

Note: Should changes be required to the content of this course outline, students will be given reasonable notice.